This book considers institutional racism as a problem that exists within modern societies. Its roots lie with the transatlantic slave trade and slavery and the solution involves ridding society of the problem. It is argued here that, first, there needs to be an acceptance of its existence, then developing the tools needed to deal with it and, finally, to implement those tools so that institutional racism can be permanently removed from society. The book has four themes: the first considers the nature of institutional racism, the second theme looks at instances of institutional racism through matters such as deaths in custody and skin lightening, the third considers the concept of reparations and the final area looks at the development of social movements as a way of pushing institutional racism up the political agenda. The development of a social movement is part of a social discourse which would, for example, push mentoring as a form of reparations. There is a need for more research on the manifestations of institutional racism and this book is part of that discourse. It is argued that the legacy of the slave trade and slavery is continuing and contemporary through the presence of institutional racism in society. This problem has not been addressed through legislation and policies devised to combat racial discrimination. Institutional racism needs to be understood as being located in the processes and procedures of societal institutions.
Reading the spirit of the provision -- Linking nationality to institutional racism through positive action -- UK law -- Compliance and institutional racism -- Conclusion -- Notes -- Bibliography -- 6. Black custodial deaths as an instance of institutional racism -- Introduction -- Background -- The concern -- The Independent Inquiry into the death of David Bennett -- The Sainsbury's Report -- Black Mental Health UK -- The Butler Inquiry -- Transparency and the veil behind which institutional racism operates -- The need for training -- Code for Crown Prosecutors and institutional racism -- The Independent Police Complaints Commission -- Conclusion -- Notes -- Bibliography -- 7. Institutional racism as a current and continuing legacy of the transatlantic slave trade: Skin bleaching and hair-straightening -- Introduction -- Background -- Loathing of the 'Other' -- Self-loathing -- Institutional wrongdoers -- Conclusion -- Notes -- Bibliography -- 8. The moral, legal and political case for reparations for the legacy of the transatlantic slave trade and chattel slavery -- Introduction -- Background: History, the core of reparations and the moral case for reparations -- The legal case -- Not a wrong at the time? -- The cause -- Defendant beneficiaries and claimants -- Political case -- The Caribbean legacy -- The European legacy -- Conclusion -- Notes -- Bibliography -- 9. Social movements to global movements -- Background -- What is a social movement? -- Presence of a group of like-minded people -- The goal as a factor in social movements -- What tactics do social movements use to get their message across? -- Leaders -- Does a social movement on reparations for the legacy of the transatlantic slave trade exist? -- Who are the complainants/reparations activists? -- In search of a common goal -- Positive reparations -- The moral issue -- The policy issue